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memories of 1998
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After many years of troubles in Northern Ireland both sides agree to the Good Friday peace agreement. The US President Bill Clinton denies he had "sexual relations" with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky, but later admits it. The Soviet Union Banking system suffers a meltdown when the Rouble lost 70% of its value against US dollar in 6 months with several of the largest Russians banks collapsing. U.N.I.C.E.F. reports there are approximately 250 million child laborers worldwide.

No doubt Jim, Barbara, Anthony, Dave and Denise, of the Royle family, would have been watching the World Cup from the comfort of their sofa in their council house in Manchester. Who would have thought that a TV show about other people watching TV would be such a success? Actually, they didn’t just watch TV, they also smoked cigarettes, made cups of tea and broke wind! It’s doubtful whether Jim Royle would have been impressed with American cult import ‘South Park’ but the rest of the UK certainly got into it; millions tuning in every week to see "Who killed Kenny?" (many more may have tuned into find out who had killed Beckham!)

The cinemas saw a swing back to America for the big successes of the year with no noticeable UK films coming out in 1998. The bloody ‘Saving Private Ryan’ was a second world war hit starring Tom Hanks; the story involving a group of soldiers with orders to safely take home a Private James Ryan to his mother, whose other 3 sons have already been killed. A lot less bloody and a lot more singing and dancing was the re-release of ‘Grease’. The high school love story coming back to the big screen 20 years after its original release (this time with enhanced colour and digital sound).

Easter 1998 floods

At the start of Easter 1998 (9-10 April) a stationary band of heavy rain affected the Midlands. This resulted in floods in which five people died and thousands had to be evacuated from their homes. The wettest area, with over 75 mm, stretched from Worcestershire towards The Wash and the flooded towns included Evesham, Leamington Spa, Stratford-on-Avon, Bedford, Northampton and Huntingdon.

TV Soaps

Hayley Patterson, British soap’s first transgender character, is first seen in Coronation Street. Hayley (played by Julie Hesmondhalgh) is a regular in the series for several years, and helps to change public attitudes towards transgender issues. The character is killed off in a dramatic and emotional right to die storyline in January 2014 after Hesmondhalgh decided to leave the show.

An episode of Coronation Street in which the character Deirdre Rachid is jailed for mortgage and credit card fraud is watched by 16.5 million viewers, giving the soap its highest Sunday viewing figures since the weekend episode was added in 1996. The crimes having been committed by her lover, Jon Lindsay, Deirdre’s wrongful conviction sparks a public outcry. Her case is championed by national newspapers, and even Prime Minister Tony Blair offers to refer the conviction to Home Secretary Jack Straw.
17 April – Coronation Street character Deirdre Rachid is freed from prison after her lover Jon Lindsay is exposed as a bigamist. Four separate tabloid newspapers subsequently claim victory in securing her release, but the soap’s producers say they always planned for the jail storyline to conclude after three weeks.

14 September – Data released by the National Grid indicates that a special edition of EastEnders aired the previous evening beat ITV’s Sunday edition of Coronation Street. Power surges recorded as the programmes ended suggest three times as many viewers tuned into EastEnders than did Coronation Street.

29 September – Former Spandau Ballet guitarist turned actor Martin Kemp is to join the cast of EastEnders as a nightclub owner, it is confirmed.

The National Grid reports a surge in the use of electricity at 8.00pm, as the Coronation Street episode featuring the death of the character Des Barnes (played by Philip Middlemiss) reaches its conclusion.

22 November – The BBC confirms that Patsy Palmer, who plays Bianca Butcher in EastEnders will leave the soap in 1999 to spend more time with her family.

2 December – The Commission for Racial Equality has called on British soaps to change the way black and Asian people are portrayed after Marcus Wrigley, a new black character in Coronation Street, was seen breaking into a house in one of his first scenes.

21 December – Coronation Street unveils its first Asian family, the Desais, who will be seen on screen from the New Year. They are Ravi Desai (played by Saeed Jaffrey, his daughter Nita (Rebecca Sarker) and son Vikram (Chris Bisson), and will take over the running of the corner shop from Fred Eliot (John Savident).

The National Federation of SubPostmasters criticises the forthcoming Christmas Day episode of Emmerdale for featuring the death of a village postmaster during a robbery, expressing concerns it could prompt a spate of copycat incidents. The union calls on ITV to pull the episode, which sees the character Vic Windsor (Alun Lewis) killed after he strikes his head during a robbery at his post office. ITV says it has taken care not to breach Post Office security during the episode’s filming.

30 December – Provisional viewing figures indicate that BBC One had seven of the top ten most watched programmes over the Christmas weekend. The 28 December episode of EastEnders achieved first place with 15.7m viewers, followed by an episode of Coronation Street from the previous day with 15.1m. The final episode of Men Behaving Badly was watched by 14m viewers.

31 December – An episode of EastEnders in which the character Tiffany Mitchell is killed when she is hit by a car driven by Frank Butcher is watched by 22 million viewers.

Byker Grove: When Ant and Dec were PJ and Duncan. Twenty five years before "gritty" and "groundbreaking" became standard TV adjectives, the BBC’s teen soap Byker Grove was just that. Filmed on Tyneside, based around a local youth club, its cast was recruited from ordinary schools, unearthing future stars who say they would not be where they are today without it.

Although it is almost unthinkable, it was a time when Ant did not automatically come with television co-presenter Dec. Declan Donnelly played Duncan in the first series of Byker Grove but Anthony McPartlin’s PJ did not appear until series two. "I don’t really remember you being there," Ant has said. "You weren’t really on my radar."

Dec has admitted they did not "hit it off". Their characters became friends before they did. Starting on 8 November 1989, the show’s first run was only six episodes long. But the BBC’s decision to bring in EastEnders director Matthew Robinson was testament to its commitment. Storylines about teenage pregnancy, drug addiction and child abuse hauled in the audience and earned it a Bafta nomination. With success came complaints from parents and, in the case of the famous gay kiss, nationwide tabloid outrage and calls for Robinson’s head.

Although Noddy Fishwick’s shy peck at Gary Hendrix’s cheek in a dark ’90s cinema was angrily unrequited, it was the first gay kiss on UK children’s television. Former head of BBC children’s television, Anne Home, has said it "did cause a certain amount of furore". "We had a number of complaints but often adults don’t watch long enough to see that actually there is a very strong moral at the end of it."

Location manager and assistant director Si King – now one half of the Hairy Bikers – believes the show was "loud and proud" of its regional identity and its focus on serious issues "everybody in the country could relate to". It lasted for 17 years and more than 340 episodes.

Google was founded

The world’s most popular search engine was launched in 1998. It’s pretty crazy to imagine a life without Google since it’s how we access information online.

The first Apple iMac was introduced

Remember those colorful bubble desktop computers that were frustratingly slow? Apple’s iMac has certainly improved, but man, that pinwheel of death was the worst.

The Furby became every child’s worst nightmare

It served no purpose but to creep you out at unexpected moments. The Furby tripled in price for the 1998 holiday season. The worst part is that it was REVIVED in 2012, with digital eyes, no less.

The first portable MP3 player is released

The MPMan music player debuted in Asia in March 1998, and it was the first mass-produced portable solid state digital audio player.

1998 Timeline

5 January – The UK takes over the Presidency of the EC’s Council of Ministers until 30 June.

6 January – The BBC and ITV agree their scheduling arrangements for the 1998 World Cup, which will see both England and Scotland’s opening matches airing on BBC One, while each nation’s second group match will air on ITV.

7 January – The BBC confirms that Helen Rollason will return to TV screens to present weekend sports bulletins for BBC One and BBC Two following treatment for colon cancer.

8 January – The ITV docudrama Miracle at Sea: The Rescue of Tony Bullimore reconstructs the events of yachtsman Tony Bullimore’s dramatic rescue after his boat capsized during the 1996 Vendée Globe yacht race.

9 January – Chat show host Michael Parkinson returns to television after several years with a new series of Parkinson. Guests on the first edition are Sir Anthony Hopkins, Barry Manilow and Paul Merton.

12 January – Location filming begins for a one-off episode of Australian soap Home and Away set in Ironbridge, Shropshire. This is the first occasion the serial has filmed an episode overseas. The storyline, aired later in the year, sees Irene Roberts (Lynne McGranger) arrive in the UK to help Selina Roberts (Tempany Deckert), who is recovering from a bout of malaria. Selina is also reunited with her on screen fiancé Steven Matheson (Adam Willits).

21 January – The former Conservative MP Rupert Allason loses a libel action against BBC Worldwide and Hat Trick Productions over comments made in a 1996 book based on the satirical television programme Have I Got News for You. A paragraph in Have I Got 1997 for You, had noted "…given Mr Allason’s fondness for pursuing libel actions, there are also excellent legal reasons for not referring to him as a conniving little shit".

26 January – Hayley Patterson, British soap’s first transgender character, is first seen in Coronation Street. Hayley (played by Julie Hesmondhalgh) is a regular in the series for several years, and helps to change public attitudes towards transgender issues. The character is killed off in a dramatic and emotional right to die storyline in January 2014 after Hesmondhalgh decided to leave the show.

3 February – Stamps commemorating Diana, Princess of Wales go on sale across Britain.

4 February – Debut of The Pepsi Chart Show on Channel 5. Initially presented by Rhona Mitra and Eddy Temple-Morris the programme is intended as a stablemate to the Pepsi Chart that airs across commercial radio. The show becomes one of the channel’s most watched programmes, but has difficulty attracting some of the bigger acts of the day.

6 March – Central Weekend is briefly taken off air when a member of the audience becomes aggressive during a discussion about women’s football.

7 – 22 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, and win one bronze medal.

9 March – The name Tyne Tees Television is returned to ITV viewers in the North East of England, having been rebranded as Channel 3 North East two years previously.

12 February – Mohamed Al Fayed, the father of Dodi Fayed, says that he is "99.9% certain" that his son’s death in the car crash that also claimed the life of Diana, Princess of Wales on 31 August 1997 was a conspiracy to kill rather than an accident. He also claims that his son had purchased an engagement ring just before the crash and had been preparing to propose marriage to Diana. A lawyer in Mr Al Fayed’s native Egypt is planning to sue The Queen and prime minister Tony Blair on the grounds that they had conspired to kill Diana because her love for a Muslim would embarrass the state.

2 March – Channel 5 begins a rerun of the 1980s Australian soap Sons and Daughters. This is the programme’s first networked showing as its previous run on ITV had varied from region to region.

3 March – Millennium Dome construction begins.

29 March – BBC America launches in the United States.

31 March – Rolls-Royce Motors acquired by the German car manufacturer BMW.

April – Vauxhall launches its fourth generation Astra small family car range. The initial range consists of hatchbacks and estates, with coupe and saloons due next year and a cabriolet in two years.

1 April – The historic counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire are re-established, 24 years after they merged to form Hereford and Worcester.

10 April – The Good Friday Agreement, an agreement between the UK and Irish governments, and the main political parties in Northern Ireland is signed.

27 April – Kevin Lloyd, who has played Tosh Lines in The Bill since 1988, is dismissed from the role by ITV due to his alcoholism. He died, aged 49, within a week.

2 May – Police in Maryland, United States of America, reveal that they have arrested and bailed former footballer Justin Fashanu over an allegation of sexual assault against a 17-year-old male, and they believe he has now breached his bail conditions and fled the country.

9 May – Eurovision Song Contest held in Birmingham at the National Indoor Arena. The contest is presented by Terry Wogan and Ulrika Jonsson and won by Israel’s Dana International singing "Diva".

15 May – 24th G8 summit held in Birmingham.

20 May – Nurses Deborah Parry and Lucille McLauchlan, who had been convicted in Saudi Arabia for the murder of Yvonne Gilford the previous year, have their sentences commuted by the order of King Fahd and are returned to the UK.

23 May – A referendum on the Good Friday Agreement is held in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland with 95% and 71% support respectively.

25 May – Labour MP George Galloway demands an investigation into an edition of Panorama aired on 21 May, which he describes as "racist". The edition had focussed on two British nurses accused of the murder of Yvonne Gifford, a colleague with whom they worked in Saudi Arabia, and included a reconstruction of the two women being interrogated by Saudi Police. Galloway describes the programme as "tabloid television at its worst".

28 May – Channel 4 is censured by the Broadcasting Standards Commission for an episode of the series TV Dinners in which a woman’s afterbirth was served up to friends and relatives as pâté. Several viewers, including MP Kevin McNamara complained about the programme, shown in February, which the Commission deemed had broken a taboo and "would have been disagreeable to many".

3 June – The Big Breakfast co-presenter Denise van Outen apologises for taking an ashtray and tissue box holder from Buckingham Palace. She took the items while attending a royal reception two days earlier, but returns them with a note of apology following criticism in the press.

5 June – The BBC signs a deal with BSkyB to make BBC channels available through Sky Digital when it is launched later in the year.

9 June – Film critic and host of The Film Programme, Barry Norman announces he will leave the BBC after 25 years to join BSkyB. He will leave Film 98 at the end of its current run and join Sky in September.

10 June – The BBC switches on its digital signal.

10 June – 12 July – The BBC and ITV show live coverage of the 1998 FIFA World Cup.

11 June – Blue Peter presenters Katy Hill and Richard Bacon bury a time capsule containing various items associated with the programme in the foundations of the Millennium Dome. It will be opened in 2050.

13 June – Jason Searle wins the ninth series of Stars in Their Eyes, performing as Neil Diamond.

15 June – First general-circulation issue of a two pound coin, with a bi-metallic design (dated 1997).

The DVD format is released onto the UK market for the first time. Among the first set of titles released on the new format is Jumanji.

25 June – The final episode of BBC One’s The Human Body is the first British television programme to show the final moments of a cancer patient. Herbert Mower, who died the previous year, had given permission for his death to be recorded for the series.

26 June – Launch of the music channel Kiss TV.

3 July – So Graham Norton debuts on Channel 4.

10 July – BBC Chairman Sir Christopher Bland officially opens the BBC News Centre.

12 July – Three young children are killed in a loyalist arson attack in Ballymoney, Northern Ireland.

31 July – Crime and Disorder Act receives Royal Assent. It introduces Anti-Social Behaviour Orders, Sex Offender Orders, Parenting Orders, and ‘racially aggravated’ offences. It makes it possible for a young person between ten and fourteen to be presumed capable of committing an offence and formally abolishes capital punishment for treason and piracy, the last civilian offences for which the death penalty remained theoretically available.

The government announces a total ban on the use of landmines by the British military.

10 August – Manchester United TV begins broadcasting, making Manchester United F.C. the world’s first football team to have its own television channel.

12 August – The Independent Television Commission upholds a viewer’s complaint after a member of the girl band B*Witched used the phrase "feck off" during a live interview on children’s channel Nickelodeon on 13 May.

15 August – A car bomb explodes in the Northern Irish market town of Omagh, killing 29 people – the worst terrorist atrocity in the history of The Troubles in Northern Ireland.

19 August – It is reported that talk show host Vanessa Feltz has been sacked by Anglia Television because of her "unreal" demands to have her wages doubled to £2.75 million.

22 August – Reading F.C. move into their new Madejski Stadium, named after chairman John Madejski, near junction 12 of the M4 motorway in the south of Reading. It seats more than 24,000 spectators.

24 August – First RFID human implantation tested in the United Kingdom by Kevin Warwick at the University of Reading.

The Netherlands is selected as the venue for the trial of the two Libyans who are charged with the Lockerbie aircraft bombing that killed 270 people in December 1988.

25 August – Channel 5 is reprimanded by the Independent Television Commission for showing a commercial during its soap, Family Affairs after both featured the same actor. The advert for McDonald’s, aired on 18 May, featured actor Stephen Hoyle, who plays Liam Tripp in the series. The ITC has strict rules governing the separation of television programmes and commercials, and after two viewers complained about the incident, rules that Channel 5 had breached its regulations.

27 August – Vanessa Feltz signs an exclusive two year contract with the BBC.

28 August – The satellite TV channel Bravo launches The Doll’s House, an online series enabling internet users to observe the lives of four women living in a house in London. The women were selected from 250 applicants to live rent free in the house for six months, with weekly highlights of their activities being aired on the channel’s men’s magazine, The Basement. The project, inspired by JenniCam, a US site established by Jennifer Ringley, follows an experiment by Bravo earlier in the year, where cameras chronicled the life of actress Sara West over three months. The Doll’s House later attracts some media attention after one of the housemates slept with a male partner, unaware they were both on camera at the time.

29 August – The BBC’s domestic TV channels become available on Sky Digital’s satellite service. An unintended consequence of this is that people in the rest of Europe can now watch BBC One and Two, using viewing cards from the UK, as the signal is encrypted for rights reasons. This applies even within the UK: people in England can now watch BBC channels from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and vice versa.

September – Ford launches its new Focus range of family hatchbacks, saloons and estates, which will eventually replace the long-running Escort.

1 September – Channel 4 pulls a documentary from the following day’s schedule after learning that it was faked. Daddy’s Girl told the story of aspiring model Victoria and her father, Marcus, who spoke candidly of his feelings about his daughter’s career. But father and daughter were revealed to be boyfriend and girlfriend when Victoria’s real father contacted Channel 4 after seeing a trailer for the documentary.

4 September – ITV broadcasts the first edition of its new game show, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?.

5 September – ITV’s football magazine programme On the Ball debuts with Gabby Yorath as presenter.

Debut of The Moment of Truth, a game show presented by Cilla Black in which families or groups of friends can win prizes if one of their number is able to complete a difficult task, such as getting 24 tiddlywinks into a pot in under two minutes or memorising then playing the US national anthem on a xylophone. The programme achieves audiences of nine million, but is criticised as cruel because children are shown the prizes even though they could lose, and are visibly distressed when their family loses. Black herself later admits she was not "emotionally prepared" for the reaction of losing contestants, and the rules are changed to allow larger consolation prizes for the second series.

8 September – The Real IRA announces a ceasefire.

9 September – Manchester United informs the London Stock Exchange that it has accepted a £623.4m takeover bid by Rupert Murdoch’s British Sky Broadcasting.

10 September – Sky Movies Screen 1, Sky Movies Screen 2 and Sky Movies Gold are Change to Sky Premier, Sky Moviemax and Sky Cinema.

In Northern Ireland, David Trimble of the Ulster Unionist Party meets Gerry Adams of Sinn Féin — the first such meeting between Republicans and Loyalists since 1922.

14 September – Data released by the National Grid indicates that a special edition of EastEnders aired the previous evening beat ITV’s Sunday edition of Coronation Street. Power surges recorded as the programmes ended suggest three times as many viewers tuned into EastEnders than did Coronation Street.

16 September – The Union Jack dress worn by the Spice Girl Geri Halliwell is sold at Sotheby’s for £41,320.

17 September – ITV’s This Morning conducts the first live test of the anti-impotence drug Viagra.

18 September – In an attempt to attract more viewers to its soap Family Affairs, Channel 5 announces that its entire central cast, the Hart family will be killed off in a dramatic storyline.

21 September – Footage of US President Bill Clinton’s recent testimony to a Grand Jury about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky is released to US television networks, and aired by broadcasters around the world, including in the UK.

23 September – BBC Choice, the UK’s first digital-only TV station, launches.[46] BBC Parliament also launches on the same day, having replaced The Parliamentary Channel.

The BBC warns Blue Peter viewers to ignore a hoax chain letter claiming to be supported by the programme.

ITV’s autumn schedule will include what is reported to be the most expensive costume drama the broadcaster has ever made—the seafaring adventure Hornblower, which will cost £3 million an episode to produce.

28 September – Three police officers are awarded substantial libel damages against Granada Television at the High Court after the broadcast of an April 1992 edition of World in Action which accused them of fabricating evidence against a prisoner charged with the murder of his cell mate.

29 September – Former Spandau Ballet guitarist turned actor Martin Kemp is to join the cast of EastEnders as a nightclub owner, it is confirmed.

1 October – Digital satellite television launches in the UK, operated by Sky Digital. This sees the start of UK channels transmitting in 16:9 widescreen.

Sky Sports News is launched.

5 October – ITV adopts a new set of idents with lower case lettering, and themed around a heart design.

Sarah, Duchess of York makes her debut as a television talk show host on Sky One with the first in a ten-part series titled Sarah… Surviving Life. Each week she will interview guests who have been through traumatic experiences, discussing with them how they overcame their difficulties. Guests in the first episode include a woman who was raped by serial killer Fred West, a man who killed someone, and a car crash survivor. The programme is panned by critics, and axed in February 1999 because of poor viewing figures.

6 October – The BBC announce plans to revamp its news bulletins following an 18 month review of news programming, the largest ever undertaken in the UK. Changes will include a new look Six O’Clock News concentrating on national and regional stories, and an increase in world news stories for the ‘Nine O’Clock News.

7 October – On the day’s edition of The Big Breakfast, Denise van Outen announces her intention to leave the programme at the end of the year.

10 October – BBC Two airs Blue Peter Night, a selection of programmes celebrating 40 years of the children’s television series Blue Peter.

13 October – Debut of Delia’s How to Cook, a basic cookery programme presented by Delia Smith. The series is criticised by chef and restauranteur Gary Rhodes for its back-to-basics approach, while the Devon Fire Brigade criticise a piece of advice she gives in an edition to people who wish to season a new frying pan–to heat oil in it and leave it to simmer on low heat for eight hours.

15 October – The BBC loses the broadcasting rights to test match cricket after the England and Wales Cricket Board accepts a rival £103 million four-year bid from Channel 4 and BSkyB. The decision brings to an end sixty years of continuous cricket coverage by the BBC.

16 October – Police place General Augusto Pinochet, the 83-year-old former dictator of Chile, into house arrest during his medical treatment in Britain at the request of Spain.

A man who got drunk and ran amok on the set of Central Television’s Central Weekend during a debate on women’s football in March, forcing the show to be taken off the air, is jailed for 12 months over the incident.

19 October – Richard Bacon becomes the first ever Blue Peter presenter to have his contract terminated in mid-run after the tabloid newspaper News of the World publishes a report of him taking cocaine. After his dismissal the Head of BBC children’s programmes, Lorraine Heggessey, goes on air to explain the situation to CBBC viewers.

27 October – As part of its Q.E.D. strand, BBC One airs Hope for Helen, a documentary following television presenter Helen Rollason’s fight against terminal cancer. She had been diagnosed with the condition the previous year and given three months to live.

November – Peugeot launches the 206 supermini, which is being built at the Ryton plant near Coventry.

9 November – Human Rights Act receives Royal Assent.

15 November – Digital terrestrial television launches in the UK, operated by ONdigital which became ITV Digital almost 3 years later.

18 November – The British Egg Information Service reports that egg sales have increased by 10% since the debut of Delia Smith’s BBC Two series Delia’s How to Cook, a series that teaches viewers basic cookery skills.

The National Grid reports a surge in the use of electricity at 8.00pm, as the Coronation Street episode featuring the death of the character Des Barnes (played by Philip Middlemiss) reaches its conclusion.

19 November – ITV is given permission to move its 10.00 pm news bulletin by the Independent Television Commission, a decision that will allow the channel to axe News at Ten in early 1999. ITV wanted to move the programme because of declining ratings, and to make way for films and television dramas to air uninterrupted in its evening schedule, but the plans had been criticised by senior journalists and politicians, who fear it will lead to a reduction in the quality of evening television. Once the changes are implemented, ITV’s main evening bulletin will air at 6.30 pm, with a shorter news programme at 11.00 pm.

Members of the National Assembly Against Racism, one of Britain’s leading anti-racism groups, stage a protest outside the headquarters of Channel 4 as the channel airs a Dispatches documentary that claims to have established that most juvenile gang rapes are carried out by black youths.

20 November – The Independent Television Commission orders ITV to take its advertising campaign for digital television off air because it is "derogatory" towards satellite television. The campaign had featured a crossed out satellite dish, and had attracted complaints from other major broadcasters in the week it was shown. The regulator also decides that future digital television advertising campaigns by ITV must be submitted to the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre before going on air.

At London’s Wandsworth County Court the makers of Channel 4’s Fifteen to One are awarded a county court judgment against Trevor Montague, a former series champion who broke the show’s rule that losing contestants cannot appear on the programme again. Having lost in 1989, Montague re-applied under a different name in 1992 and went on to become series champion, but was subsequently identified by a contestant who watched a repeat of the show on Challenge TV. Montague must pay £3,562 in compensation, and return his prizes – two goblets and a set of decanters – to Regent Productions.

22 November – The BBC confirms that Patsy Palmer, who plays Bianca Butcher in EastEnders will leave the soap in 1999 to spend more time with her family.

24 November – The Queen’s Speech is interrupted by MPs and peers, when the Queen began to outlay the government’s plan to abolish the rights of 700 hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords.

26 November – Tony Blair becomes the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to address the Oireachtas (Irish parliament).

27 November – ITV has scrapped plans for a documentary investigating claims of anti-English racism in Scotland because there was not enough evidence to support it, the Daily Record reports.

December – The Ford Focus is voted European Car of the Year.

2 December – ITV airs the first celebrity special of Stars in Their Eyes, an edition that includes Carol Vorderman performing as Cher, and five female cast members of Coronation Street as The Spice Girls. The edition is won by Steven Houghton as Tony Hadley.

3 December – Channel 4 announces it has secured a £400,000 deal to air the only international interview with Monica Lewinsky, the woman at the centre of the sex scandal involving US President Bill Clinton.

7 December – Long-running current affairs series World in Action ends after 35 years.

Launch of the UK’s second digital-only TV station ITV2.

9 December – Channel 4 News unveils a new look for its hour long bulletin and a new set, which will be seen on air from January 1999 and marks the biggest change for the programme since its launch in 1982. Jon Snow will continue to present the bulletin.

10 December – John Pople wins the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry".

John Hume and David Trimble win the Nobel Peace Prize.

11 December – BBC governors reject a request to give Scotland its own Six O’Clock News bulletin. Instead an extra £20m will be spent on new jobs and programming in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

12 December – The Commission for Racial Equality has called on British soaps to change the way black and Asian people are portrayed after Marcus Wrigley, a new black character in Coronation Street, was seen breaking into a house in one of his first scenes.

Viewers of The Living Channel accidentally see five minutes of an adult film being aired by Television X following a switching error by the company relaying both channels. The interruption, which occurs during an edition of The Jerry Springer Show generates seven complaints to the Independent Television Commission. The company responsible for the glitch later apologises, and makes technical changes to ensure it won’t happen again.

14 December – After a world-record-breaking 75 consecutive victories, Ian Lygo makes his final appearance on the Channel 5 game show 100%, after being forced to retire by the show’s producers.

After 25 years presenting Sooty Matthew Corbett announces his retirement and hand picks Richard Cadell and Liana Bridges as his successors in the very last edition of Sooty & Co.

15 December – Holiday presenter Jill Dando rules herself out of becoming the face of a planned relaunched BBC Six O’Clock News following much media speculation on the topic. Dando says she plans to leave BBC News to concentrate on her presenting roles.

16 December – Regular programming is interrupted when the United States and United Kingdom launch air strikes against Iraq after that country failed to comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction.

17 December – Jane Root is appointed Controller of BBC Two, becoming the first female head of a BBC channel. She will replace the outgoing incumbent, Mark Thompson in January 1999.

18 December – BBC political correspondent Huw Edwards is confirmed as the new face of the Six O’Clock News, taking over when the programme is revamped next year.

Carlton Television is fined £2 million by the Independent Television Commission for a 1996 documentary titled The Connection in which actors pretended to be drug traffickers.

19 December – Denise van Outen presents the final of the first Record of the Year for ITV, a show allowing viewers to vote for their favourite single of 1998 through a phone-in poll. More than a million viewers call to register their vote, making the poll the UK’s largest ever television phone poll. Of the ten songs shortlisted for the show, Irish boy band Boyzone’s single "No Matter What" emerges as the winner.

21 December – Coronation Street unveils its first Asian family, the Desais, who will be seen on screen from the New Year. They are Ravi Desai (played by Saeed Jaffrey, his daughter Nita (Rebecca Sarker) and son Vikram (Chris Bisson), and will take over the running of the corner shop from Fred Eliot (John Savident).

The National Federation of SubPostmasters criticises the forthcoming Christmas Day episode of Emmerdale for featuring the death of a village postmaster during a robbery, expressing concerns it could prompt a spate of copycat incidents. The union calls on ITV to pull the episode, which sees the character Vic Windsor (Alun Lewis) killed after he strikes his head during a robbery at his post office. ITV says it has taken care not to breach Post Office security during the episode’s filming.

24 December – A £30 million advertising campaign for the Millennium Dome kicks off with a 60 second commercial voiced by actor Jeremy Irons that invites viewers to imagine the achievements of the past 1,000 years had happened in one day. Major events such as the Consecration of Westminster Abbey, the plays of William Shakespeare and the Fall of the Berlin Wall are highlighted against the backdrop of the Easter Island Statues from sunrise to sunset.[95]
25 December – Channel 4 airs The Omen, a film depicting the Antichrist, at 10.30pm.[96][97] This leads to six viewer complaints that its scheduling on Christmas Day was in poor taste, and the Broadcasting Standards Commission later agrees with this sentiment.[98] However, the ruling in May 1999 draws criticism from Channel 4 Chief Executive Michael Jackson, who describes it as "typical of how the commission fails to get things in proportion" and says he would schedule the film similarly again.

26 December – Great Boxing Day Storm: Severe gale force winds hit Ireland, southern Scotland and northern England. Roads, railways and electricity are disrupted.

29 December – Killing of British tourists in Yemen: Three British tourists are amongst those shot during a gun battle to free them from kidnappers in Yemen.

Mathematicians Richard Borcherds and William Timothy Gowers win Fields Medal.

The DVD format, first sold in the UK in June this year, sells just over 6,000 discs by the end of the year.

30 December – Provisional viewing figures indicate that BBC One had seven of the top ten most watched programmes over the Christmas weekend. The 28 December episode of EastEnders achieved first place with 15.7m viewers, followed by an episode of Coronation Street from the previous day with 15.1m. The final episode of Men Behaving Badly was watched by 14m viewers.

31 December – An episode of EastEnders in which the character Tiffany Mitchell is killed when she is hit by a car driven by Frank Butcher is watched by 22 million viewers.



20 July – Heartburn Hotel (1998–2000)
14 September – The Royle Family (1998–2000, 2006–2012)
Bob the Builder (1998–present)
12 November – Dinnerladies (1998–2000)


15 January – Louis Theroux’s Weird Weekends (1998–2000)
15 February – This Morning with Richard Not Judy (1998–1999)
13 October – Delia’s How to Cook (1998–2002)

ITV (Including ITV and ITV2)

24 January – Ice Warriors (1998)
6 March – Airline (1998–2006)
April – Diggit (1998–2003)
16 May – Don’t Try This at Home (1998–2001)
23 June – Cadfael The Holy Thief (1998 Season 4 Episode 1)
29 August – SMTV Live (1998–2003)
CD:UK (1998–2006)
4 September – Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? (1998–2014)
15 November – Cold Feet (1998–2003)
23 December – Cadfael The Potter’s Field (1998)
28 December – Cadfael The Pilgrim of Hate (1998, Season 4 Episode 3, last)
Power Rangers Lost Galaxy (1998–1999)

Channel 4

12 April – Scrapheap Challenge (1998–2010)
3 July – So Graham Norton (1998–2002)
30 September – The 11 O’Clock Show (1998–2000)
25 October – T4 (1998–2012)
30 October – Streetmate (1998–2007)

Channel 5

2 January – PB Bear and Friends (1998)
4 February – The Pepsi Chart Show (1998–2002)
28 April – Open House with Gloria Hunniford (1998–2003)

Nickelodeon UK

23 February – Renford Rejects (1998–2001)

Cartoon Network

18 November – The Powerpuff Girls (1998–2005)

Charts Number-one singles

"Perfect Day" – Various Artists
"Never Ever" – All Saints
"All Around the World" – Oasis
"You Make Me Wanna" – Usher
"Doctor Jones" – Aqua
"My Heart Will Go On" – Céline Dion
"Brimful of Asha" – Cornershop
"Frozen" – Madonna
"My Heart Will Go On" – Céline Dion
"It’s Like That" – Run DMC vs Jason Nevins
"All That I Need" – Boyzone
"Under The Bridge / Lady Marmalade" – All Saints
"Turn Back Time" – Aqua
"Feel It" – The Tamperer featuring Maya
"C’est la Vie" – B*Witched
"Three Lions ’98" – Baddiel & Skinner and the Lightning Seeds
"Because We Want To" – Billie
"Freak Me" – Another Level
"Deeper Underground" – Jamiroquai
"Viva Forever" – Spice Girls
"No Matter What" – Boyzone
"If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next" – Manic Street Preachers
"Bootie Call" – All Saints
"Millennium" – Robbie Williams
"I Want You Back" – Melanie B featuring Missy Elliott
"Rollercoaster" – B*Witched
"Girlfriend" – Billie
"Gym and Tonic" – Spacedust
"Believe" – Cher
"To You I Belong" – B*Witched
"Goodbye" – Spice Girls
"Chocolate Salty Balls" – Chef

role of social media in advertising
Michael Kvium. 1955
Social Dream Painting 1998
Aalborg. Museum of Modern Art Denmark

La encore c’est simple : ils chient et pissent. Fonctions hypernaturelles auxquelles il est vrai que l’humanité peut se réduire. Mais est ce un but à lui proposer ? Des valeurs sur lesquelles fonder une civilisation ? Toute la question est là : Un art est-il porteur d’un message de beauté, de dépassement, de Beau et de Bien
Ou: un art est-il porteur de Laid et de Mal et de désespérance ?

Again it’s simple: they shit and piss. Hypernatural functions to which it is true that humanity can be reduced. But is this a goal to propose to him? Values on which to found a civilization?
The whole question is there: Does an art carry a message of beauty, surpassing, beauty and goodness
Or: Does an art carry Laid and Evil and despair?


Devant une oeuvre d’art, on aime ou on n’aime pas. C’est le jugement subjectif, personnel, individuel. Mais le Beau et le Laid, comme le Bien et le Mal, peuvent être objectivés. Le meilleur critère, pratique, est le jugement majoritaire des peuples accordé avec celui des élites. Quand il n’y a pas accord entre les peuples et les élites c’est qu’une société est en crise.

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."
MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

"Le monde discerne la beauté, et, par là le laid se révèle. Le monde reconnaît le bien et, par là le mal se révèle."
Dao De Jing, le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu
LAO TSEU (Laozi)


Pendant des millénaires, en Europe, et dans toutes les civilisations, "le Beau" a été un but et un critère de l’Art, notamment en peinture. L’art avait une fonction : ajouter à la beauté et aux grâces de la vie et faire partager cette beauté et ces grâces au plus grand nombre. Toutes les élites des civilisations passées poursuivaient ce but, outre bien sûr d’imposer aux peuples leurs idéologies, leurs conceptions du monde.

1° Le Beau était le but poursuivi par l’artiste quand il peignait un tableau. De l’époque médiévale à l’Art Moderne, l’artiste a toujours eu pour finalité le Beau. Même quand il entendait peindre une situation dramatique, ou horrible comme les événements de la passion du Christ (Retable d’Issenheim) ou l’Enfer ( Bouts, Bosch). Même quand il a entendu peindre les horreurs de la guerre, comme Jacques Callot, Goya ou Otto Dix.

2° Le Beau était reconnu comme tel par consensus.
Comme l’a écrit Mikel Dufrenne dans un article de l’encyclopédie Universalis, le Beau est défini par trois critères, que l’on dira objectifs : L’opinion des élites, l’opinion commune de la population, le temps.
Une excellente définition, pratique, pragmatique, qui ne se noie pas dans les concepts abstraits, la recherche d’une Essence du Beau, et utilise un langage parfaitement compréhensible pour tous.

Ces définitions laissent bien sûr la place à l’opinion individuelle et aux goûts de chacun. Comme l’a écrit aussi Mikel Dufrenne dans le même article : "L’œuvre d’art s’impose avec la force de l’évidence, pour le bonheur de qui la contemple."
C’est un quatrième critère, plus subjectif, qui varie en fonction des individus. Telle oeuvre peut procurer du bonheur à telle personne, et pas, ou moins, à telle autre. Mais d’une part le but essentiel de l’artiste était de procurer un bonheur à son public, et ce bonheur était ressenti par une majorité d’hommes de milieux différents.
L’attitude totalement relativiste qui consiste à dire qu’il n’y a pas de critère du Beau, et que tout est affaire de goût personnel, est fausse, par excès, et par méconnaissance des réalités historiques établies.
Il est vrai qu’il n’existe pas de définition, abstraite, philosophique du Beau. Il semble que les grands philosophes aient tous échoué dans toutes leurs tentatives pour en une proposer une. Il n’existe pas non plus de définition mathématique du Beau. Il est donc inutile de se casser à la tête à rechercher des définitions abstraites du Beau. Mais le Beau n’en existe pas moins.
Le Beau est un fait d’expérience dont toute l’histoire humaine témoigne, dans toutes les civilisations.
Le Beau est un sentiment de satisfaction, une émotion positive, partagés par une large fraction d’une société, peuples et élites ensemble, cette conjonction est nécessaire, et confirmés par le temps.
Ce qui a changé avec l’Art Contemporain, progressivement, mais très nettement à partir des années 1950, c’est que le Beau n’a plus été un but de l’art. Le Laid a même été revendiqué comme une recherche légitime de l’art dans la peinture et la sculpture, comme d’ailleurs dans la danse, et la dissonance en musique. L’art contemporain se fait gloire de surenchérir dans le Laid, l’Absurde et la provocation.
Comme le constate très réalistement l’historien d’art Ernst Gombrich, l’art est devenu "une aventure aux confins de l’impossible et l’art du laid."
L’adhésion idéologique de l’Art Contemporain au Laid est un constat banal, qui a été fait de multiples fois, et qui a été pleinement revendiqué par tous ses théoriciens.
Le critique d’art Michel Tapié (1909-1987) constate dans les années 1950-60 que "l’Art Moderne -entendez Art Contemporain- est né le jour où l’idée d’Art et celle de Beauté se sont trouvées disjointes." Il ne critique pas cette disjonction, bien au contraire il la constate et la justifie. "nous avons changé de valeurs".
Cela ne veut pas dire que cela a été pour le mieux ! Il est très significatif que toute l’Europe des Musées distingue, dans presque toutes les langues, les Musées des "Beaux Arts" des "Musées d’Art Contemporain". C’est l’officialisation du divorce de l’Art et du Beau.
Cette Nouveauté dans l’histoire de l’humanité n’est certainement pas sans signification ni conséquences.
Il n’est sans aucun doute pas indifférent qu’une société décide que son art officiel, en peinture et en sculpture, n’aura plus le Beau comme but, et proclame que le Laid, et l’Absurde, sont des valeurs esthétiques légitimes.
Les philosophes ont beaucoup discuté des rapports entre l’esthétique et l’éthique, le Beau et le Bien. Ils ont généralement conclu qu’il existait entre ces concepts fondamentaux, spécifiques à l’humanité, des rapports étroits et des relations de convergences.


L’art contemporain, celui officiel des collections permanentes des musées, s’explique exactement comme tous les arts européens antérieurs : par l’idéologie qui anime les élites qui l’imposent.
L’art Grec s’explique et se comprend par référence aux conceptions d’un monde conçu comme pluriel mais harmonique à condition que l’homme respecte les Dieux et l’ordre naturel.
L’art Catholique et Orthodoxe mettent en scène la religion du Christ, telle qu’interprétée par leurs églises respectives.
L’art de la Renaissance, sans entrer en conflit avec l’art catholique, est une redécouverte de certains thèmes de la pensée et de l’histoire de l’antiquité gréco-romaine.
L’art du Siècle d’Or des Pays Bas, protestant, est le reflet d’une vision du monde chrétienne, mais surtout rationaliste, matérialiste et à tendances laïques. Ces tendances laïques ne sont pas générales chez les protestants, aux églises très diverses, mais ont été dominantes aux Pays Bas.
L’art Moderne (1850-1950), né à Paris, est multiple, foisonnant, libre, car il est l’expression d’une époque où aucune idéologie, religieuse ou profane ne dominait absolument l’Europe, mais où au contraire s’affrontaient des conceptions du monde différentes. Un art libre, mais des guerres effroyables entre les idéologies, que les peuples ont payé de leur sang.
L’art Contemporain des musées est absolument déterminé par l’idéologie triomphante qui structure
actuellement, totalement, sans plus aucune concurrence, la société occidentale : "les Lumières", dans leur version capitaliste-libérale, finalement triomphante de sa version marxiste. Cet "art" n’est pas né par hasard dans les années 1920s à New York.
La doctrine politique, démocratique, des "Lumières" se résume très simplement :
1° La Légitimité politique est dans le peuple souverain. C’est le principe public, affiché, proclamé, exotérique.
2° La Raison est seulement chez les élites éclairées. C’est le principe secret, ésotérique, qui est directeur des politiques réellement conduites.
"Le peuple", son seul rôle est de fonder, justifier une légitimité.
"Les avant gardes éclairées" sont seules compétentes pour gouverner.
Les marxistes avaient commis l’erreur de trop publier cette doctrine élitiste et de l’ériger en principe proclamé: le Parti Unique. Les "libéraux", commerçants et financiers, plus réalistes et plus efficaces, savaient bien mieux dissimuler. Le multipartisme est de rigueur dans cette version de la démocratie éclairée, mais ils contrôlent tous les partis et leurs programmes. Ils ont eu le temps d’apprendre depuis les débuts du capitalisme, vers 1100 en Europe, à domestiquer, progressivement, les hommes politiques de toutes les nations. Ce sont les banquiers qui forment les chefs d’état.
Dès lors, l’art contemporain officiel, celui des musées, est facile à comprendre : le Laid et l’Absurde, que cet art revendique comme ses particularités légitimes, s’expliquent par la doctrine des Lumières : C’est un snobisme et une manière pour l’élite éclairée, initiée, de se reconnaître, de se différencier et de marquer sa distance par rapport aux peuples non éclairés.
Un facteur technique est toutefois décisif, qui a rendu possible cette évolution de la politique artistique, mais seulement au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle. Quand l’art (peinture et sculpture) a pu cesser d’être un mode obligé de communication entre les élites et les peuples, comme il l’était dans le passé. La peinture et la sculpture, au temps des cathédrales, ou sous Louis XIV, devaient plaire aux peuples pour les "instruire", ou même simplement les éblouir. L’art des civilisations du passé avait une fonction intersociale, de communication entre les élites et les peuples. Il était nécessairement un partage : celui d’une vision du monde, et bien sûr le beau était un moyen de séduction et de communication incontournable. Ce n’est plus nécessaire.
Les élites gouvernantes contemporaines ont à leur disposition des moyens de propagande nouveaux, dont ne disposaient pas les anciennes élites gouvernantes, autrement plus efficaces que l’art : l’enseignement centralisé, étatique, obligatoire, les grands médias (presse, cinéma, radio, télévision) de plus en plus concentrés entre les mains des mêmes, et la publicité. La publicité, contrairement à l’art contemporain, ne s’autorise pas le laid, l’absurde et la provocation ou seulement à dose homéopathique, humoristique.
Dès lors l’art officiel pouvait cesser d’être inter-social, l’art n’était plus indispensable comme moyen de communication entre les élites et les peuples. L’art officiel pouvait couper les ponts avec les populations, et devenir une réserve à l’usage des seuls éclairés. Une réserve exclusive pour les Sages et les Gardiens, et fermée au gens du commun.
Pour enclore cette réserve artistique le Laid et l’Absurde étaient à la fois les défenses et les clés tout à fait appropriées : Le Laid et l’Absurde constituent des barrières fortement dissuasives pour la majorité de la population. Ce sont des clefs tout à fait sélectives, car peu osent s’en servir. Pour forcer le passage et entrer dans la Réserve, il fallait reconnaitre la légitimité de ces clefs, accepter de jouer ce jeu là. Sinon on n’entrait pas au Paradis de l’art officiel.
C’est ainsi que les gens du commun (70% de la population française) restent à la porte des grands musées d’art contemporain, et se contentent de la photographie, de l’art privé et commercial, de l’art mural destinés à tout le monde. Tandis que les élites intellectuelles et intelligentes peuvent jouir de l’atmosphère raréfiée des sommets de l’art contemporain.


In front of a work of art, we like or we do not like. This is the subjective, personal, individual judgment. But the Beautiful and the Ugly, like Good and Evil, can be objectified. The best criterion, practical, is the majority judgment of the peoples accorded with that of the elites. When there is no agreement between peoples and elites is that a society is in crisis.

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s’ once called Beauty. "
MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

"The world discerns beauty, and hence the ugly is revealed. The world recognizes good and hence evil is revealed."
Dao De Jing, the Book of the Way and Virtue
LAO TSEU (Laozi)


For millennia, in Europe, and in all civilizations, "the Beautiful" was a goal and a criterion of art, particularly in painting. Art had a function: to add to the beauty and the graces of life and to share this beauty and these graces to the greatest number. All the elites of the past civilizations pursued this goal, besides of course to impose on peoples their ideologies, their conceptions of the world.

1 The Beautiful was the aim pursued by the artist when he painted a picture. From medieval times to Modern Art, the artist has allways had intented the Beautiful. Even when he intended to paint a dramatic situation, or horrible, as the events of the Passion of Christ (Issenheim Altarpiece) or Hell (Bouts, Bosch). Even when he heard paint the horrors of war, as Jacques Callot, Goya and Otto Dix.

2. The Beautiful was recognized as such by consensus.
As Mikel Dufrenne wrote in an article in the Encyclopedia Universalis, the Beau is defined by three criteria objectives: The opinion of elites, the common opinion of the population, the time.
An excellent definition, practical, pragmatic, that does not drown in abstract concepts, the search for an Essence of Beauty, and uses an understandable language.

These definitions leave room to the individual opinion and tastes. As written also Mikel Dufrenne in the same article: "The work of art is imposed on all, with the strength of the evidence, to the delight of the beholder." It is a fourth criterion, more subjective, which varies depending on individuals. Such work can bring happiness to such a person, and not, or less, to another. But firstly, the primary aim of the artist was to provide happiness to his audience, and this happiness was felt by a majority of men of different backgrounds.
The fully relativistic attitude of saying that there is no criterion of the Beautiful, and that everything is matter of personal taste, is false, by excess and by ignorance of the established historical realities. It is true that there is no definition, abstract, philosophical of the Beautiful. It seems that the great philosophers have all failed in their attempts to propose a definition of the Beautiful. There is also no mathematical definition of the Beautiful. There is no need to break the head to search for abstract definitions of the Beautiful. But the Beautiful does exists nonetheless.
The Beautiful is a fact of experience, which all of human history testifies, in all civilizations.
The Beautiful is a sense of satisfaction, a positive emotion, shared by a large section of society, elites and peoples together, this combination is absolutely necessary, and confirmed by time.
The Beautiful is a fact of experience. The Beautiful is a feeling of satisfaction, shared by a large section of society, and confirmed by time.
What has changed with Contemporary Art, gradually, but very clearly from the 1950s, is that the beautiful was no longer a goal of art. The Laid has even been claimed as a legitimate search for art in painting and sculpture, as well as in dance, and dissonance in music. Contemporary art prides itself on outbidding in the ugly, the absurd and the provocation.
As noted very realistic art historian, Ernst Gombrich, the art has become "an adventure to the borders of the impossible and the art of the ugly."
The ideological accession of Contemporary Art at the Ugly is a banal observation, which was done multiple times, and has been fully claimed by its theorists.
The art critic Michel Tapié (1909-1987) notes that in 1950-60 "Contemporary Art is born on the day when the idea of Art and that of the beauty found disjointed." He does not criticize this disjunction, on the contrary he finds good and justifies it. "We have changed values."
This is not to say that it was for the best! It is very significant that all of Europe Museums distinguishes between Museums of the "Beaux Arts" of the "Museum of Contemporary Art". This is the formalization of the divorce between the Art and the Beautiful.
This novelty in the history of mankind is certainly not without meaning and consequences.
It is undoubtedly not indifferent that a society decides that its official art, in painting and sculpture, will no longer have the Beautiful as its goal, and proclaims that the Laid and the Absurd are legitimate aesthetic values . The philosophers have discussed much the relationship between aesthetics and ethics, the Beautiful and the Good. They have generally concluded that there are close relationships and convergence relationships between these fundamental concepts, specific to humanity.


Contemporary art, the official one of the permanent collections of museums, is explained exactly like all the earlier European arts: by the ideology that animates the elites who impose it.
Greek art is explained and understood by reference to the conceptions of a world conceived as plural but harmonic, provided that man respects the gods and the natural order.
Catholic and Orthodox art expressed the religion of Christ, as interpreted by their respective churches.
The art of the Renaissance, without coming into conflict with Catholic art, is a rediscovery of certain themes of the thought and history of Greco-Roman antiquity.
The Art of the Golden Age of the Netherlands, Protestant, is the reflection of a Christian worldview, but especially rationalistic, materialistic and with secular tendencies. These secular tendencies are not general among Protestants, with very diverse churches, but have been dominant in the Netherlands.
The modern art (1850-1950), born in Paris, is multiple, abundant, free, because it is the expression of a time when no ideology, religious or profane absolutely dominated Europe, but where on the contrary s faced different conceptions of the world. A free art, but appaling wars between the ideologies, which the people have paid with their blood.
The contemporary art of museums is absolutely determined by the triumphant ideology that structures now, totally, without any more competition, Western society: "the Enlightenment", in their capitalist-liberal version, finally triumphant of its Marxist version. This "art" was not born by chance in the 1920s in New York.
The political, democratic doctrine of the "Enlightenment" is summed up very simply:
1. Political legitimacy is in the sovereign people. It is the public principle, displayed, proclaimed, exoteric.
2. Reason is only among enlightened elites. It is the secret principle, esoteric, which is the director of the policies actually conducted.
"The people", its only role is to found, justify a legitimacy.
"The enlightened avant gardes" are alone competent to govern.
Marxists had made the mistake of publishing too much this elitist doctrine and of erecting it as a proclaimed principle: the One Party. The "liberals", traders and financiers, more realistic and more effective, knew better dissimulate better. Multipartism is obligatory in this version of enlightened democracy, but they control all parties and their programs. They have had time to learn since the beginning of capitalism, around 1100 in Europe, to domesticate, gradually, the politicians of all nations. In our time it is the bankers who form the heads of state.
From then on, the official contemporary art, that of the museums, is easy to understand: the Ugly and the Absurd, which this art claims as its legitimate particularities, are explained by the doctrine of the Enlightenment: It is a snobbery and a means for the enlightened elite, initiated, to recognize and to differentiate themselves, and to mark their distance from the unenlightened peoples.
A technical factor, however, is decisive, which made possible this evolution of the artistic policy, but only during the second half of the 20th century. When art (painting and sculpture) was able to cease to be an obligatory mode of communication between elites and peoples, as it was in the past. Painting and sculpture, at the time of cathedrals, or under Louis XIV, were to please people to "educate" them, or even dazzle them. The art of the civilizations of the past had an inter-social function, of communication between the elites and the peoples. It was necessarily a sharing: that of a vision of the world, and of course the beautiful was a means of seduction and communication essential. It is not necessary any more.
The contemporary ruling elites have at their disposal new means of propaganda, which were not available to the former ruling elites, who were more efficient than art: centralized, state, compulsory education, the mass media (press, cinema, radio, television) increasingly concentrated in the hands of the same people, and the advertising. Advertising, unlike contemporary art, does not allow the ugly, the absurd and the provocation or only homeopathic dose, humorous.
From then on, official art could cease to be inter-social, and art was no longer indispensable as a means of communication between elites and peoples. The official art could cut the bridges with the populations, and become a reserve for the use of the only enlightened ones. An exclusive reserve for the Sages and Guardians, and closed to the common people.
To enclose this artistic reserve the ugly and the absurd were both the most appropriate defenses and keys: The ugly and the Absurd constitute highly dissuasive barriers for the majority of the population. These are very selective keys, because few dare to use them. To force the passage and enter the Reserve, it was necessary to recognize the legitimacy of these keys, to accept to play this game there. Otherwise we did not enter the paradise of the official art.
This is how ordinary people (70% of the French population) stay at the doors of the great museums of contemporary art, and are content with photography, private and commercial art, wall art intended to everybody. While intellectual and intelligent elites can enjoy the rarefied atmosphere of the peaks of contemporary art.

bits and pieces from “up your alley” & a an essay on Facbook Profits 2018, scott richard
role of social media in advertising
an essay that cites TONS of quotes and incidents from the recent congressional meeting regarding FACEBOOK taking over the world and why you should have invested when i told you to invest… i did. just so proof would equal pudding.

"CONGRESS MAN, YES" & several of the reasons why USURER’S LOGIC makes FACEBOOK the future press darlings of 2018 and beyond based on the CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS + transcript notes and observations by scott richard

usury sucks for everyone. even those who profit.

and we don’t FIGHT USURY.

we fk it until it destroys everything around us.

FB means fk buddy, literally, not facebook…

anyway, i know from great and long experience that americans graft their identity concepts from the products and services they use and abuse.

you can’t go broke betting on the fall.

to not buy FACEBOOK stock would be like turning down a 50% off willy wonka chocolate bar that ALSO comes with a free golden ticket to the chocolate factory.

so while i listened and periodically watched the 5 hours of boring and often JUVENILE hearings, i couldn’t help thinking how clever deception really is. FACEBOOK does soooo many things that you have no idea about.

where did you think all that FAKE money was going?

and it was sooooo touching when a couple of the congress people dared to ask when mark would stop selling OPIOID DRUGS off FACEBOOK. he conveniently said, never.

but don’t worry, the u.s. sent it’s least qualified people to talk to FACEBOOK about this, lol.

i mean, the vast majority of these congresspeople were like children who have no clue about adult concepts.

for example, not one congressperson asked if those "privacy settings" weren’t hackable — as in something so FKING SIMPLE like "well, a hacker can hack past those infantile settings." instead, they gave zuckerberg the legal opportunity to talk-stall his way out of their four minutes. it was EMBARRASSING to see how stupid most of these congresspeople really are and how unlearned about important tech philosophy. most of them had no idea even what "privacy settings" were, so many spent their four minutes being "schooled". fking waste. that’s like sending me to the olympics for weightlifting…

so the first problem is that congresspeople don’t really know a lot about anything. in general, they are "OUT OF THE GD LOOP" when it comes to understanding worldwide things like the fking INTERNET!!??! they know a little about a lot.

anyway, each congressperson was given four minutes to ask zuckerberg questions about what happened.

the LARGE majority wasted these minutes with grandstanding. only a handful seemed to have an inkling of what the real reach and danger and anti-American stance that FACEBOOK has against the united states.

so instead of gathering relevant testimony and commitment from FACEBOOK on super important legal issues regarding citizenship protection and unethical information exchange, they paraded themselves for THEIR fake american constituent’s votes. it was DISGUSTING. how fking shallow bipartisan azzhoes really are.

instead of REPRESENTING AMERICA, they represented their own careers.

and honestly, every single person on MEDZ or overeating or over drinking these days is acting like an ANTI-AMERICAN. supremacy is also a form of ANTI-AMERICANISM.

we’ve reached a point where our daily choices are becoming ANTI-AMERICAN and in violation of other citizens’ rights to be free. but i guess we don’t see it clearly, mostly.

in the city, it is much more obvious. especially a FAKE SANCTUARY city like san francisco, the sanctuary is REALLY being given to the monied and the foreign investors, not the locals. it’s a FAKE moniker for investors, not a representation of anything more. but most people are like these congresspeople — out to get more votes from their base. but that’s not AMERICAN. that’s just regional self-interest.

thankfully, there were a few exceptions and those ones were AWESOME to hear. they were incredibly revealing. and it is clear that their voices are being thrown out. so that’s a drag, but you can’t really stop FACEBOOK. they are not a social platform. they are the world’s largest company and they fund TONS of stuff around the globe.

for example, FACEBOOK is going to have the largest WORLDWIDE "counterterrorism" team. already there team is competitive with world powers. soon, they will be larger than any nation’s.

now, those of us who are in the know, well, we KNOW that the COUNTERTERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

if you listen to the 9/11 commission report you would know this, too. or, if you listened to anything the islamic world is saying you’d know this, too. but i already know you don’t listen to those people.

doesn’t change the truth — the COUNTERRERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

so now FACEBOOK will be the leading force in this deception.

already they have over 200 people working full time in 30 different languages in counterterrorism.

if you don’t get what this means, you should go read my facebook farewell that i wrote about two years ago when i stopped contributing to the largest surveillance system ever built and used against humanity.

i had written a similar program concept in the 90s. it was called CYBERBUDDY.

the idea was you would input your info into a program (we call them apps now) that tracked your emotional and physical world by remembering everything you input and being able to remind you of things — how you felt about others, what had happened and what others had done to you.

and, as all the social media programs do, it would have a backside that was constantly selling your information to buyers.

but the user never knew this.

anyway, that’s exactly what FACEBOOK did. and let’s be honest, FACEBOOK was CHOSEN.

it’s not that great.

there were way better platform possibilities. but the world cartels needed something legit, so they chose the HARVARD-based platform. and it worked. they inserted the most deviant and self-revealing and WORSE betraying platform known to humans.

this congressperson is holding up a chart. it shows FACEBOOK’s profits.

they are escalating exponentially. from 1 billion in 2006 to 26 billion in 2016 and then WATCH THE FKING LEAP!!!!

40 BILLION dollars in 2017.

buy now. you won’t be crying later.

anyway, zuckerberg intends to have more than 20,000 people working on counterterrorism within a year or so. they are also building an endless array of surveillance and algorithmic tools that will affect ALL world trade. they are also deeply involved in ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE development.

basically, if you wanted an anti christ of jewish origins, you are looking at the rise of the kingship. but if you’re not scared and don’t go that way right away, dip into OVERHEAD STUDIES to see just how amazingly controlling all of this is when you also have KILL DRONES and security enforcement.

already OVERHEAD STUDIES are being used against the u.s. population to imprison us.

anyway, for most people this will seem crazy and like a new gibberish. so be it.

i started to take notes about a third of the way into process when i started to get a feel for how the "hearings" work. it was new for me, but i’ll post the transcript of my notes which are a lot of actual transcriptting.

the republicans are all for it and that’s why you should bet on FACEBOOK. especially since the majority of FACEBOOK’s users are and will be NOT from america. so our "opinion" of this is just that.

FACEBOOK is bigger than the u.s. government and for the record, the whole counterterrorism surveillance team works from outside the u.s.

where there are different laws…

okay, so here’s the transcript which i LAUGHINGLY call:


because this is the tactic zuckerberg and his lawyers realized was the WINNING COMBO.

who knew congresspeople were so fking stupid? especially from the stupid states. geez.

no wonder so many extra-foreigners are making a bid at stealing so much of the united states’ property.

it must be fking easy with so many dum fks.

and to those congress people who used this momentous occasion to further their careers instead of protecting the american public, FKU!!!!!



no stars

figures on a beach

the partial notes:


i would love to be a congressperson, but to be one, i would have to not understand any of this. so why are they “representing” us??!?!?!

zuckerbergs tactics.

agree with the person.

deflect away from the topic by using their weakness and lack of knowledge.

obscure the truth. pretend you’re not a MASSIVE CONGLOMERATE but a calendar site for connecting people’s lives HALLMARK.

once zuckerberg figures out how to run the clock down, he takes over everytime.

some senators (usually republican) have long winded and meaningless monologues followed by easy to answer questions of no importance except to wind the four minute clock down.

20K employees for content control.

some senators (usually democratic) try to get him to answer YES OR NO questions. his tactic for stalling in this case is deflect back to their misunderstanding of the precise language or meaning. it makes them look dumb (a lot of the are and don’t understand why FACEBOOK is such a walking/talking front for a secret information and collection agency as well as worldwide product mouthpiece)

the best questions take all four minutes and then zuckerberg can deflect easily. fk that!!!

NOT A SINGLE CONGRESS PERSON (well, maybe one, but he petered out oddly) got through their questions. most had MANY left and were forced to “submit” them for consideration. BULLSHIT!!!!

SMASHFACE his “prank” site.

"we’re getting ready to overreact”

we do nothing or we overreact!

you need to save your ship?

diamond and silk. african american women.

what is unsafe about two women supporting donald trump?

mr. schrader from oregon.

do you delete and save.

yes.. all things saved.

document retention policy.

preserve mails/conversations

testified that you don’t sell information.

but others do. aren’t you complicit?

"complaint only” enforcement.

kennedy democrat

wasted the whole time trying to explain himself.

“i’m sorry, i don’t understand your question.”

targeting options are shared likes. shared by facebook.

ad ranking. meta data. behaviors. newsfeed. relevancy vs. GIVING to advertisers.

how do people then “own” their own data?

then gets lost in the process and time runs out.

part of the rub

second you focus the individual instead of societal impact… you’re out of time.

but news and media. blah blah blah

mr flores. texas

large oil company monopoly 1800s 1900s

telecom company monopoly in the70s

thanks for being good.

wasted the whole time with a bizarre lecture.

conservatives are mad about BIAS.

they can’t see past their stupidity.

policy responses.

ideological agnosticism regarding their users public facing activities

finally, some questions. do you believe FACEBOOK SHOULD BE IDEOLOGICALLY NEUTRAL?

i agree we should be a platform for all ideas. [cuts him off and moves to next question. bam! yeah!!

with respect to privacy we need a baseline when we talk about a virtual person, name address websites visited, picture, etc. ownership issue is the individual’s creation.

they own it.

do you agree.


use of data issue and full disclosure for unlimited time.

easy understand.

runs out of time.


mr cardenas

biggest business model and totally unregulated.

shows shareholder revenues table

2009 net revenue less than a billion dollars

26 billion for 2016

40 billion dollars for 2017

CEO of cambridge analytica stepped down during the meeting.

does that solve the issue around the controversy.

no, two issues. how were they able to buy data from a developer that people chose to share it with? but some of the info originated on facebook.

people had it on facebook and CHOSE to share their AND their friend’s information…


buy information to add or augment to build around them their profile.

we just recently announced that we’ve stopped working with data brokers as part of the ad system.

yes, standard practice.

you did engage in it.

yes. until we announced we were shutting it did.

facebook threatened to sue the guardian if it revelaed the cambridge analytica story.

hey maybe you don’t want to do that.

“there may have been an specific factual inaccuracy.”

however they did go through with it regardless.

then ONLY then did facebook apologize for 89 million users info ending up in other people’s hands.

it’s time that you FACEBOOK want to be a leader and american you can be a leader.

are you committed to being a leader. you can in fact do right by users of facebook.

time’s out. two second answer?

"i am definitely committed to taking a broader review of our responsibility. not so that we don’t just give people tools but so they are used for good.”

first five or ten minute , ten minute recess.



mre. brooks indiana

platform of facebook and other platforms help keep us safe from terrorists and recruitment of women and children to join terrorist organizations.

facebook didn’t exist before 9/11

isis and al acaida use these platforms.

terrorism recruitment.

now terrorists use social media.

then you talked about dangerous or objectionable content needing to be reported but what if they don’t? what if people just assume that someone else is reporting.

what is the leadership role of facebook, our role in stopping recruitment.

thank you for the question. there is no place for that in our network.

we’ve developed a number of tools so that 99% of isis and al acaida is flagged before we even see it.

we’re proud of it as a model for removing "harmful content".

as of march 29th there were ISIS videos, executions,

april 9th five pages of hezbollah content

what is the mechanism?

is it AI

2-0K people?

what are you using.

this is just within a week.

counter terrorism team at facebook with 200 people.

other content reviewers not in the 200.

NCTC produces analysis, maintains the authoritative database of known and suspected terrorists, shares information, and conducts strategic operational planning. NCTC is staffed by more than 1,000 personnel from across the IC, the Federal government, and Federal contractors. NCTC’s workforce represents approximately 20 different departments and agencies—a tribute to the recognition by the intelligence, homeland security, and law enforcement communities of NCTC’s role in protecting the Nation against terrorist threats.

just focused on counter terrorism.

30 languages.

AI tools in development

proactively flag content and sources

owns wassap? .

how are they helping the to stop the recruiting.



correction plea: whether web blogs would be able to download your info. they are not we only store them temporarily. we convert them into ad interests. which can be controlled.

mr. ruiz

D california

“i’m also taking a ‘broad’ view…”

what went wrong here and what can be better to protect users?

why did facebook NOT notify the FTC in 2015 when you first discovered this happened and did your legal company say you were under no responsibility?

didn’t believe it was a legal obligation.

does facebook need the trust of its users.

is this a weakness that you are not required to report a violation.

broader view of responsibilities of responsibility.

what about other CEOs.

two days of head the fTc doesn’t have the correct tools and we can’t rely on companies.

would it be helpful if there is an entity to oversee?

details matter. agency or law

we’re realizing there’s a lot of holes in the system.

no one can monitor.

both look forward to following up.

mr. mullin oklahoma

i prefer you use the term congress man or woman.

commend zuckerberg for seeing things through its growth period.

very talented.

and hiring the right people who “get the job done”.

isn’t it the consumer’s responsibility to control the content they release.

i agree with what you’re saying.

do the device settings really protect the information?

as a user of facebook how can someone control content in a realm without it being collected.

you collect info for that purpose

yes we do that so the “ad experience” can be more useful the advertisers and the users.

value base.

but if i’m a customer how do i keep that from happening.

yes there is a setting.

you can turn that off and we won’t do it.

we offer a lot of settings in every way from content to interests to search results, sign ins to alternate apps.

we try to make the controls easy.. it’s a broad service.

so they can contersfigure it the way they want.



mr.peters E

technology has outpaced the law.

iwant to take you at your word that you value personal privacy.

know that pirvacy protection is not a bottom line issue.

shareholders. it doesn’t drive profits and it may interfere with profits.

would it not be appropriate when we define this duty to assess financial penalties to the company.

it’s something we could consider, but i’d push back on the idea that their’s a conflict between what people want and business interests.

i think a lot of these hard decisions come down to different people with different interests. people want to bring their AND friends info. others want it locked down. it’s not a business question it’s which interests do you weigh more.

what did the europeans get right about regulations?

they’re a lot of things the europeans do.

the gdpr is a positive step for the internet and codifies many things.

making them visible and affirmative consent is good and more should be done.

what did they get wrong.

i need to thank about that more.

submit it in writing.

might have actually finished his questions before 4 minutes. either way, he doesn’t appear to pursue his time until its end.

mr. hudson north carolina

ft bragg

thanks for dropping by.

men are prohibited from having social media profiles.

we learned each one was hacked.

almost asking to be hacked.

are you aware of the security concerns that creates.

i’m not specifically aware of that threat.

there are many issues we focus on and try to take a broad view of that.

collusion with the intelligence community would be good.

i’d love to follow up on that.

you say facebook is a platform for all ideas.

but it doesn’t seem like christian beliefs and conservative beliefs.

diamond and silk come up again.

this is a very serious concern.

i asked my constituents on facebook today and they all wanted to know about personal privacy. i think there is an issue you need to deal with and you recognize this based on your testimony today.

what is the standard that facebook uses to determine what is offensive or controversial

a couple of standards.

strongest one is physical harm or threats are first.

but then there is a broader form of hate speech or broadly uncomfortable speech.

isn’t that difficult to define? what standards does facebook use to try to determine what is hate speech vs. speech you may just disagree with?

time runs out.

new york

mister collins R

thank you coming.

you don’t know what you know until you know it.

facebook doesn’t sell data.

now we all know you don’t sell data.

we’re all here because a third party app developer broke the rules.

it’s hard to anticipate a bad actor.

clearly you took actions after 2014.

what did change?

before the change someone could share info about their friends.

then we said you can’t.

more praises.

who is going to protect us from facebook?

i thought it was an out of bounds kind of comment.

you’re doing good and i sincerely know in my heart you believe in keeping things equal.

you have 27K employees.

operating under a consent decree.

so when someone said do we need more legislation.

i said no.

he’s doing the best he can with 27K people.

i think it was beneficial.

we don’t need legislation.

we now know things we didn’t know beforehand.

mr Wahlberg

michigan R

thank you mister zuckerberg.

listened to both sides of the aisle.

three starter questions.

who were the bad actors?

i don’t remember the specifics of early on.

we saw app developers who asked for permission to see stuff.


we should review these apps and they should only have a reason to access it.

stopped bringing friends’ info.

secondly, can facebook insure that every single app is not misusing their data?

it would be difficult to ever guaranty to say there are no bad actors.

every problem around security is an arms’ race where people abuse systems.

our responsibility is to make that as hard as possible for a company of our scale and it is growing with our scale.

that’s a good answer. it’s honest. LOL FKING LOUD you stoopid fk. your brain is childish. how can you be a congress person?!?!?

thirdly, can you assure me that ads and content are not being denied based on particular views.

congressman yes, politically.

i hear political speech.

we certainly won’t be advertising terrorists.

screeengrab of an ad that contained shocking or distasteful + violence.

it was an “algorithm” problem.

it was pro-life.

that causes us some concerns.

light touch in regulation.


mrs walters

california R

misuse of consumer data and what controls users have over their info.

you have indicated they have granular control over their own content.

she asks the most basic question.

it’s a time waster. she doesn’t understand the app.

but sadly, she’s so serious. so dum.

her second question doesn’t even seem like a question of relevance. she says that california has been heralded by many on this committee for its privacy initiatives and yet given that you and tech companies are in california and we’re still experiencing privacy issues how do you square the two?

i think privacy is not something that you can ever…

it’s it’s our understanding of the issues and people as the interact online only grows over time and we’ll adjust to social norms or we’ll put rules into place…


merl dingell


married to the king o twitter.

four hours.

some striking things.

you didn’t know key facts for a CEO

you didn’t know about major court cases regarding your privacy policies against your company.

you didn’t know that the FTC doesn’t have fining authority and that facebook couldn’t have recieved fines for the 2011 consent order .

you didn’t know what a shadow profile was.

you didn’t know how many apps you need to audit.

you didn’t know how many firms had been sold data by dr. culgan other than cambridge analytica.

and yes we were all paying attention yesterday.

you don’t even know all the information facebook is collecting from its users.

you have trackers all over the world.

on most of the sites we see the facebook like and share buttons.

and with the facebook pixel people may not even see the logo.

it doesn’t matter if you have those tools facebook is able to collect info from all of us.

so i want to ask you:

how many facebook buttons are on non-facebook pages?

congresswoman i don’t know the answer off the top of my head but we’ll get back to you.

is the number over one hundred million?

i believe we have served the like button on more pages than that. but i don’t know the number that have the like buttons on actively.

how many chunks of non pixel code are there on non-facebook pages?

congress woman you are asking for specific stats that i don’t have off the top of my head but we can follow up.

could we get that back in 72 hours.


do you know now whether there were fourth parties involved?

are you hiding the truth that has taken three years to appear.

i am convinced there are others out there.

we are going to try to find the fourth parties.

we will ban them from the platform and take action that they delete the data.

and you will make it public.


like water and air we need clear rules.

mr. costello

pennsylvania R

echoes the idiot’s comments — dumshit collins from ny.

they probably get kickback from the same tong.

we americans have a non codified idea about our privacy rights.

how do we make them understandable?

first, if you look at gdpr what pieces do you feel would fit in american juris prudence.

not just you but smaller companies as well.

well, making sure people have control over what they are sharing. and to be able to delete it. second, people should have the tools to make decisions. third piece is that some sensitive technolidies like face recognition that your get special consent for. if we make it too hard we will lose to innovative countries. like china.

do you believe that you should be able to use AI with a non facebook user?

that’s a good question and we should probably have control over it and we’re going to ask people around the world in our upcoming push.

in general for sensitive technologies you do want consent.

is facebook EVER a publisher in your mind as the term is legally used.

how is the term leagally used?

would you ever be responsible for the content you put onto your platform?

yes. but the vast majority of content on facebook isn’t commissioned or posted by facebook.

runs out of time while asking how the data might be slighted .


mister carter

did you know that 91 people die every day from opioid addiction.

2 and half million addicted.

it’s bringing the life expectancy down.

i ask you this because you have ads for illicit drugs and your responsibility.

will you help.

yes i will.

did you know there are groups that have provided evidence that ivory is traded on facebook.

i was not aware of that

some conservation groups claim that facebook is contributing to the extinction of the elephant.

did you know that piracy of movies is challenging their profits.

i believe that has been an issue for a long time.

so you did know.

hate speech may be difficult but these things are not.

i don’t want to legislate morality but we need a commitment from you that you will help us.

you want to see a mess, let the federal government into this!

more than 20, 000 people will be working on security and content review and we need to build more tools, too.

duncan carolinaR

been on facebook since 2007

it’s like a downhill in real time.

great staff.

so i asked my facebook crowd and they want to know about being discriminated.

user privacy and censorship.

first amendment is cited.

why not have a community standard for the community that is a mirror of the first amendment without algorithms that have a viewpoint that is neutral.

well we don’t want to spread allowed hate. if you care about safety we don’t want people to spread info that can cause harm. allow the broadest spectrum

pontificating congress man continues to please and confuse himself.

ends with what will you do to assure the user that they are treated equally.

well, i think we make a lot of mistakes in content review that don’t focus on one political persuasion. i think it’s unfortunate when that happens because the people think it’s focused on them.

thanks facebook and concludes.

mr, cramer

north dakota R

we need to make sure we don’t overreact.

this is an important national discussion.

the consumer and industry or other companies share a responsibility.

but your answer weren’t reassuring about drug sites.

can’t you give it your best?

can’t you make taking down drugs more important?

its certainly far more dangerous than a couple of xian women being discriminated against.

yes congressman, we are making efforts.

unfortunately the enforcement isn’t perfect.

i don’t expect it to be perfect but i expect it to be a higher thought.

you need to have less liberal content reviewers.

you should look in the middle of the north american continent.

come to bismarck north dakota.

we’re common sensical and more diverse than maybe even facebook.

maybe we could have a nice big center somewhere?

we republicans don’t want the web hyper regulated.

don’ you think you should have privacy protection.

well, first, the majority of our content reviewers are not in silicon valley they are around the world in different places.

for net neutrality i think there is a big difference between internet providers and the platforms on top of them.

the big reason that well, i think about my own experience.

i only had one provider.

platforms there are just many more.

the average american uses 8 apps.

there are more choices.

they can reach large scale.

they close saying that they wan to look into more of the topics.

like they’ve all had their first internet class in social media platforms.

they thank him.

they appreciate his answers.

they will submit more questions in writing.

the aclu submits a letter and so do a bunch of other groups.

it’s a long list.

answer them within ten days of receipt.

ten days for questions to be submitted.

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