PILGRIM ON A FOREST ROAD — Into the Mist of Old Japan (#1)
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PILGRIM ON A FOREST ROAD — Into the Mist of Old Japan (#1)
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This is PHOTO #1 in a series of FOUR PHOTOS taken by Enami only minutes apart along the same trail in the misty mountains of old Japan.

Enami published a mini-series of four different consecutive views with this title, all showing the same guy at different points along this misty trail. They are ENAMI 3-D CATALOG numbers S 896 through S 899.

Three of the four images in the series can be seen HERE :


Follow the links given in the in-photo notes, and you will experience a bit of the movement and thoughts going on in Enami’s head as he considers which way to artistically compose each shot.

One of the three I’ve posted is a STEROVIEW, the beauty of which is enhanced by the depth of the scene, preserved by the twin lenses of the stereo camera.


Photographed ca.1898-1907 by T. ENAMI, Japan’s Meiji-era Master of the small-format image. The particular slide above was printed later in Enami’s studio, ca.1925-30 from the earlier image. www.t-enami.org/

I believe this was made from a half-stereoview negative, but have never seen it as a full stereoview. I have seen it as a large transparency panel in a lamp-stand that had other transparency panels made from Enami stereoviews.

In fact, here it is : www.flickr.com/photos/24443965@N08/4083036023/

Enami advertised these glass enlargements for use as both the lamp panels seen at the link, and, when framed in a simpler fashion, used as a photographic STAINED GLASS display that could be hung in a window.

The idea was a good one, and they must have looked beautiful when first hung. However, exposure to sunlight would have gradually (and in some cases quickly) faded the colors. On the other hand — as evidenced by the above slide (and all other glass slides in my various flickr sets) — you can see that the dyes and pigments kept in the darkness of a lantern-slide box have kept their hand-applied colors well for a century or more.

MANY HAVE MADE THIS VIEW A "FAVORITE", WITH THE MOST COMMENTS AS WELL. After having had such a good reception, it is probably anti-climactic (and possibly detracting from the above photo) to come up with a very similar image by the same photographer.

However, I was surprised to discover a "sister view" to this one. After Enami took the shot you see above, he moved his camera beyond the big tree seen here on the right, and re-took another similar view featuring the NEXT big tree you see up ahead on the path.

I suppose its better to show both views, as it reveals the thinking and movement of the photographer on a morning photo-shoot over 100 years ago. It’s up to you which one you like better. Here’s the other one : www.flickr.com/photos/24443965@N08/2389237724/

NOTE : The above linked "Yellow Version" has taken the lead as the favorite of the two. In either case, I am sure T. ENAMI is thankful for your "vote" on his old-time views of Japan.

For what it’s worth, I should mention again that these are all hand-colored, and that many "original copies" of the same view were most-likely made over a period of years in Enami’s studio. The tourists were constantly buying them. If the same lantern-slide comes up on eBay, or at a flea-market or Antique Photo Show, it is very likely that the tones and hues will vary — some greatly. It is always difficult to find two hand-tinted images that are exactly the same.

I have a few "duplicates" of some other slides made years apart in Enami’s long-lived studio. THE COLORING OF EACH ONE IS QUITE DIFFERENT, YET JUST AS BEAUTIFUL.

Finally compare the relatively "rough" view above with a "cleaner" image attributed to Enami’s elder friend, TAMAMURA, and read the short comment describing their difference in style www.flickr.com/photos/24443965@N08/2370768914/

For more on the photographer T. ENAMI see : www.t-enami.org/

For the MOTHER LODE of T. Enami photographs here on the Web — all CC rated for your creative use — see this Flickr collection : www.flickr.com/photos/24443965@N08/collections/7215761388…

RANDOM SOBA : www.flickriver.com/photos/24443965@N08/random/

Dumpy Tree Frog
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Litorea caerulea

From Wikipedia –

The Australian Green Tree Frog, simply Green Tree Frog in Australia, White’s Tree Frog, or Dumpy Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) is a species of tree frog native to Australia and New Guinea, with introduced populations in New Zealand and the United States. The species belongs to the genus Litoria. It is physiologically similar to some species of the genus, particularly the Magnificent Tree Frog (Litoria splendida) and the Giant Tree Frog (Litoria infrafrenata).

The Green Tree Frog is larger than most Australian frogs, reaching 10 centimetres (4 inches) in length. The average lifespan of the frog in captivity, about sixteen years, is long in comparison with most frogs. Green Tree Frogs are docile and well suited to living near human dwellings. They are often found on windows or inside houses, eating insects drawn by the light.

Due to its physical and behavioural traits, the Green Tree Frog has become one of the most recognisable frogs in its region, and is a popular exotic pet throughout the world. The skin secretions of the frog have antibacterial and antiviral properties that may prove useful in pharmaceutical preparations.

The Green Tree Frog shares the Litoria genus with dozens of frog species endemic to Australasia. The common name of the species, "White’s Tree Frog", is in honour of John White’s first description in 1790. The Green Tree Frog was the first Australian frog scientifically classified.

The species was originally called the "blue frog" (Rana caerulea) despite its green colour. The original specimens White sent to England were damaged by the preservative and appeared blue. The colour of the frog is caused by blue and green pigments covered in a yellow layer; the preservative destroyed the yellow layer and left the frog with a blue appearance. The specific epithet, caerulea, which is Latin for blue, has remained. The frog is also known more simply as the "Green Tree Frog." However, that name is often given to the most common large green tree frog in a region, for example, the American green tree frog (Hyla cinerea).

The Green Tree Frog can grow up to 10 centimeters (4 inches) in length. Its color depends on the temperature and color of the environment, ranging from brown to green; the ventral surface is white. The frog occasionally has small, white, irregularly shaped spots on its back, up to five millimeters in diameter, which increase in number with age. The frog has large discs at the end of its toes, of about five millimeters in diameter at maturity. These help the frogs grip while climbing and allow them to climb vertically on glass. The eyes are golden and have horizontal irises, typical of the Litoria genus. The fingers are about one-third webbed, and the toes nearly three-quarters webbed. The tympanum (a skin membrane similar to an eardrum) is visible.

The Green Tree Frog is sometimes confused with the Magnificent Tree Frog (Litoria splendida), which inhabits only north-western Australia and can be distinguished by the presence of large parotoids and rostral glands on the head. The Giant Tree Frog (Litoria infrafrenata) is also sometimes confused with the Green Tree Frog. The main difference is a distinct white stripe along the edge of the lower jaw of the Giant Tree Frog, which is not present in the Green Tree Frog.

The tadpole’s appearance changes throughout its development. The length of the species’ tadpoles ranges from 8.1 millimeters (once hatched) to 44 millimeters. They are initially mottled with brown, which increases in pigmentation (to green or brown) during development. The underside begins dark and then lightens, eventually to white in adults. The eggs are brown, in a clear jelly and are 1.1–1.4 millimeters in diameter.

Although frogs have lungs, they absorb oxygen through their skin, and for this to occur efficiently, the skin must be moist. A disadvantage of moist skin is that pathogens can thrive on it, increasing the chance of infection. To counteract this, frogs secrete peptides that destroy these pathogens. The skin secretion from the Green Tree Frog contains caerins, a group of peptides with antibacterial and antiviral properties. It also contains caerulins, which have the same physiological effects as CCK-8, a digestive hormone and hunger suppressant. Several peptides from the skin secretions of the Green Tree Frog have been found to destroy HIV without harming healthy T-cells.

The Green Tree Frog is native to northern and eastern regions of Australia and to southern New Guinea. Distribution is limited mostly to areas with a warm, wet tropical climate. In New Guinea, the Green Tree Frog is restricted to the drier, southern region. Its range spans from Irian Jaya to Port Moresby, and is most abundant on Daru Island. There have been isolated records in northern New Guinea, however this is thought to have been through introduction by humans. The International Conservation Union (IUCN) suggests "scattered locations" in both New Guinea and Indonesia.

The species has been introduced to both the United States and New Zealand. In the United States, it is restricted to two regions within Florida, where it was possibly introduced through the pet trade. Only small populations have been found in Florida, and it is unknown whether they have caused any ecological damage as an invasive species. In New Zealand, a population was once present; however, there have been no sightings since the 1950s.

Green Tree Frogs are very docile. They are nocturnal and come out in early evenings to call (in spring and summer) and hunt at night. During the day they find cool, dark, and moist areas to sleep. During winter, Green Tree Frogs do not call and are not usually seen.

Depending on their location, Green Tree Frogs occupy various habitats. Typically, they are found in the canopy of trees near a still-water source. However, they can survive in swamps (among the reeds) or in grasslands in cooler climates. Green Tree Frogs are well known for inhabiting water sources inside houses, such as sinks or toilets. They can also be found on windows eating insects. They will occupy tanks (cisterns), downpipes (downspouts), and gutters, as these have a high humidity and are usually cooler than the external environment. The frogs are drawn to downpipes and tanks during mating season, as the fixtures amplify their call.

The species’ call is a low, slow Brawk-Brawk-Brawk, repeated many times. For most of the year, they call from high positions, such as trees and gutters. During mating season the frogs descend, although remaining slightly elevated, and call close to still-water sources, whether temporary or permanent. Like many frogs, Green Tree Frogs call not only to attract a mate. They have been observed calling to advertise their location outside the mating season, usually after rain, for reasons that are uncertain to researchers. They will emit a stress call whenever they are in danger, such as when predators are close or when a person steps on a log in which a frog resides.

The species’ diet consists mainly of insects and spiders, but can include smaller frogs and even small mammals. Frog teeth are not suited to cutting up prey, so the prey must fit inside the mouth of the frog. Many frogs propel their sticky tongues at prey. The prey sticks, and is consumed. A Green Tree Frog will use this technique for smaller prey; however for larger prey, it pounces, then forces the prey into its mouth with its hands.

The frog has a few native predators, among them snakes and a few species of lizards and birds. Since the European settlement of Australia, non-native predators have been introduced, primarily dogs and cats. The species has an average life expectancy in captivity of sixteen years, but some have been known to live for over twenty years, which is long for a frog. The average life expectancy in the wild is lower than in captivity, due to predation.

As a pet
The Green Tree Frog is one of the most popular pet frogs throughout the world. Its docile nature, often cartoon-like appearance, and long life expectancy make it an attractive choice for exotic-pet owners. It is also one of the easier frogs to care for: their diet is broad and they have a strong resistance to disease. One problem commonly associated with keeping this species as a pet is overfeeding; Green Tree Frogs tend to become obese if overfed. In the wild, exertion of energy is required for a frog to capture its prey. However, in captivity they are usually given live feed in a confined space. This lessens the activity needed for feeding, resulting in weight gain. An overweight member of the species will deposit fat layers over the top of the head and body, giving it "dumpy" appearance. Thus the name, "Dumpy Tree Frog."

Australian law gives protected status to the Green Tree Frog – along with all Australian fauna – under the federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The IUCN lists it as a "least concern" species, given its broad range and population, balanced habitats, and because it is likely not declining fast enough for more threatened status.

Much of the Green Tree Frog’s natural habitat has been destroyed. Also, some of the frogs have been found infected with chytrid fungus (causing chytridiomycosis). These two factors associated with the general decline in frog populations in Australia threaten to reduce the population of the Green Tree Frog. However, because of the long life expectancy of this species, any effects of a reduced reproduction rate will take longer to spot than they would in a species with a shorter life expectancy.

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